Haumea, a dwarf planet in the Kuiper Belt, was discovered in 2004 by a team of astronomers led by José Luis Ortiz Moreno and independently by a team led by Mike Brown. The discovery was officially announced in 2005, and Haumea was named after the Hawaiian goddess of childbirth. Haumea's peculiar elongated shape, rapid rotation, and the presence of two moons have garnered significant interest among researchers.
- Properties of Haumea
Haumea has an average diameter of approximately 1,450 kilometres, but its elongated shape results in dimensions of 2,320 x 1,701 x 1,062 kilometres. Haumea has a highly rapid rotation, with a day lasting just 3.9 Earth hours, causing its distinctive oblong appearance. The dwarf planet has an orbital period of approximately 284 Earth years and a moderately inclined orbit at 28 degrees.
Haumea's surface is primarily composed of water ice, with traces of other ices such as methane and nitrogen. Its density suggests a predominantly rocky interior, with the outer layer consisting of a mixture of rock and ice.
- Haumea's Moons: Hi'iaka and Namaka
Haumea has two known moons, Hi'iaka and Namaka, discovered in 2005. Hi'iaka, the larger moon, has an estimated diameter of 310 kilometres and orbits Haumea at a distance of 49,880 kilometres. Namaka, the smaller moon, has an estimated diameter of 170 kilometres and orbits at a distance of 25,620 kilometres.
- Formation of Haumea and Its Moons
The current leading hypothesis for Haumea's formation involves a giant impact event. It is believed that a collision between Haumea and another trans-Neptunian object in the early solar system resulted in the ejection of material that later coalesced to form its two moons, Hi'iaka and Namaka. The rapid rotation of Haumea is also thought to be a consequence of this impact event.
- Exploration of Haumea
To date, there have been no missions to Haumea or its moons, and our knowledge of these celestial bodies is based primarily on ground-based telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope. Future missions to Haumea and its moons could provide invaluable information about the formation and evolution of the outer solar system, the nature of trans-Neptunian objects, and the history of the early solar system.